2067

Master Level / I year / Humanities Full Marks: 100

SA 535: Research Methods in Sociology/Anthropology Time: 4 hrs

Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable.

The figures in the margin indicate full narks.

Attempt any three questions from Group ‘A’ and four questions from Group ‘B’

Group ‘A’

Long Answer Questions 3*20=60

1. ……………..

2. ……………..

3. ……………..

4. ……………..

Group ‘B’

Short Answer Question 4*10=40

5. ……………..

6. ……………..

7. ……………..

8. ……………..

9. ……………..

10. Write short notes on any two of the followings:

a. …………..

b. ……………

c. …………..

Model Questions

A. Long Answer Questions (3 questions x 20 marks)

- Explain why we carry out social research. Design a research on correlates of literacy.
- Describe how different stages of a social research are mutually connected.
- What are the attributes of a good research problem? Why is research problem different from a social problem?
- Differentiate among disciplinary, interdisciplinary and problem-oriented types of research. Elaborate the utility of each type.
- Describe and assess the trends in sociological and anthropological research in Nepal.

- What is the relationship between theory and research? Illustrate with an example how it is possible to take different approaches to study a particular social problem.
- Discuss cultural-ecological theoretical-epistemological model and its research protocols.
- Discuss the similarities and differences between structural-functional and conflict metatheories and their research designs.
- Write an essay on structure-functional metatheory and its research protocols.

- What are the distinguishing features of exploratory, descriptive and experimental research designs? Illustrate your answer with appropriate expmples.
- What is experimental research design? Discuss various types of experimental research design with examples.
- Define research the main features of exploratory, descriptive and explanatory types of research design. Elaborate the strengths and weaknesses of each type.
- Define research design and explain its importance to social research. Describe the main features of descriptive research design.

- Define and explain concept, variable, measurement, reliability and validity. Give appropriate examples for each.
- What is measurement? Discuss the postulates and levels of measurement and their corresponding modes of data analysis. Illustrate your answer with suitable examples.
- Write as essay on RRA, PRA and AIA. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each of these techniques.
- Write an essay on case studies and life histories. Elaborate the utility of these techniques in anthropological research.
- What is interview? Explain various types of interviews with suitable examples. Elaborate the utility of interview as a technique of qualitative data generation.

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- What are the distinguishing features of probability and non-probability sampling designs. Describe the sampling procedures, used and limitations of any three types of probability sampling.
- Describe the similarities and differences between a questionnaire and structured interview schedule. Elaborate the uses and limitations of each of these techniques in survey research.

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- Define mean, median and mode. Illustrate them with appropriate examples. Point out their strengths and weaknesses as measures of central tendency.
- Define standard deviation and explain it with appropriate examples. Elaborate its utility in quantitative analysis. Compute standard deviation by using the appropriate formula with following figures:

Given: Sum of the values ( ) = 60

Sum of the squares of the values ( ) = 450

Total number of items (n) = 10

* What is Chi-square rest and when is it used? Provide formula and steps to calculate a chi-square value ( ) and describe how the chi-square ( ) value is interpreted.

* The distribution of 500 respondents according to their family size and educational status is given in the table below. Find whether the two variables are associated using Chi-square test.

df = 4 p =.05 = 9.488

df = 4 p = .01 =13.277

- What is rank correlation coefficient and when is it used? Provide formula and steps to calculate the value of spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (r ) between two sets of ranks and describe how the value of r is interpreted.
- What is person’s product moment correlation coefficient and when is it used? Provide the formula and steps to calculate the value of person’s correlation coefficient (r) between X and Y series and describe how the value of r is interpreted.

- Short Answer Question (4 question X 10 marks)

- Why is literature review an important component of research?
- What is a theoretical framework? Why are theoretical frameworks important in social research?
- What is an indicator? Develop and justify three different sets of indicators of socioeconomic status.
- What is the utility of secondary data analysis? Describe the major secondary sets of data in Nepal for researching levels and trends in consumption?
- Why is ethics important in social research? What are the major ethnical issues involved in social research?
- What kind of data should be collected through a social survey? Why?
- What are the major ethical issues in social science research? Illustrate with appropriate examples.

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- Explain how theory, method and data are interrelated.
- Explain the interrelationship between theory and research.
- Describe how metatheory and research agenda are interrelated.
- Describe feminist theoretical model and discuss its research protocols.
- What is Marxist metatheory? What are its research protocols?
- Differentiate between induction and deduction with appropriate examples.
- Write an essay on induction, deduction and generalization.

- What are the qualities of a good research design? Discuss the uses and limitations of descriptive research design.
- Differentiate between cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs with appropriate examples.
- What is a historical research design? What are the strengths and limitations of historical research design?
- Differentiate between explanatory and descriptive types of research design. Elaborate the utility of each type.
- Write an essay on experimental research design.

- Explain various types of symmetrical and asymmetrical relationships with appropriate examples.
- Define concept and variable, and elaborate them with appropriate examples.
- What is measurement? Explain different levels of measurement with suitable examples.
- Explain correlation, causality and spurious interpretations with appropriate examples.
- Describe the content, construct and criterion validity and validation with suitable examples.

- Assess the importance of participant observation in an anthropological research.
- Assess the utility of genealogical methods in anthropological research
- Describe RRA and PRA techniques and assess their utility in qualitative data generation?

- Assess the utility of ethnographic accounts in anthropological research.
- What is meant by conversation analysis? Explain with appropriate examples.
- Write on essay on content analysis.

- Discuss the similarities and differences between a questionnaire and structured interview schedule.
- Describe the sampling procedures of systematic and stratified random sampling designs. Elaborate the uses and limitations of these sampling techniques.
- Assess the uses and limitations of structured interview schedule in survey research.
- What is a questionnaire? Discuss its uses and limitations in survey research.

- Describe mean, median and mode with suitable examples.
- Define/explain mean and standard deviation. Give suitable examples for each.
- Define/explain ‘arithmetic mean’ and discuss its merits and demerits as a measura of central tendency.
- What is Average Deviation? Discuss its merits and demerits as a measure of dispersion.

- Discuss how qualitative and quantitative research tools and techniques are complementary to each other.
- Explain how qualitative and quantitative approaches of analysis are complementary to each other.
- “The main issue for a good quality research is not choosing between qualitative and quantitative approaches of analysis but making a combination of both”. Elucidate.

Short Notes:

- Literature review
- Narrative
- Pie-chart
- Comparative research designs
- Archival study
- Ratio, Proportion and rate
- Reliability
- Control
- Discourse analysis
- Documentary research
- Sampling error
- Determination of sample size
- Degree of freedom
- Level of confidence
- Interpretation
- Limitations of survey research
- Snowball-sampling
- Correlation and causality
- Standard deviation
- Arithmetic mean
- Histograms
- Non-probability sampling
- Social research
- Purposive sampling
- Cluster sampling
- Advantages and disadvantages of Chi-square ( ) test.

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